Kazimir Malevich’s oil on canvas painting “Woman with Rake” is a powerful example of the artist’s “2nd Peasant Cycle” series. Created between 1930 and 1932, this genre painting depicts a peasant woman aggressively clutching a rake, her lack of facial features following Malevich’s stylistic approach during this period. Measuring 100 x 75 cm, “Woman with Rake” hangs in Moscow’s prestigious Tretyakov Gallery as part of their extensive collection of works by pioneering Russian artists like Malevich.
Malevich, known for founding the avant-garde Suprematist movement, shifted to exploring peasant life in his later works. Having applied unsuccessfully for asylum in Poland, Malevich returned to the Soviet Union where he created works like “Woman with Rake” showing the strength and resilience of the Russian peasantry. The rake becomes a symbol of the relationship between individual and collective, with the woman representing the proletariat. This blend of modernist and traditional elements provides insight into the social climate of early Soviet Russia.
“Woman with Rake” stands out in Malevich’s body of work for its bold colors, abstracted geometric forms, and themes of agrarian labor. The faceless woman epitomizes the peasant individual succumbing to the anonymity of the collective in rapidly changing times. By portraying traditional subjects through techniques influenced by Cubism and other modern movements, Malevich provides commentary on the evolving role of art in society. This exemplary painting has rightfully earned its place in Moscow’s Tretyakov Gallery as a highlight of Malevich’s influential “2nd Peasant Cycle.”
An Introduction to Kazimir Malevich
To appreciate the significance of “Woman with Rake,” it is helpful to understand the unconventional path of its creator. Kazimir Malevich (1879-1935) was a Russian avant-garde artist who founded the Suprematist movement. Beginning around 1915, Malevich moved away from representative art and began creating abstract paintings using simple geometric shapes and a limited color palette.
His most famous work from this period is the 1915 painting “Black Square” – a radical piece composed of a black square against a white background. This conceptual approach was intended to reflect what Malevich described as the “supremacy of pure feeling” over depictions of objective reality.
By the early 1930s, Malevich had moved away from his Suprematist style due to pressure from the Soviet government, who favored Socialist Realism. It was during this time that he painted “Woman with Rake” and other works in his Second Peasant Cycle.
Composition and Symbolism
“Woman with Rake” is an oil painting on canvas measuring 100 x 75 cm. The work depicts a faceless woman holding a rake aggressively with both hands. She dominates the pictorial space, her body and rake forming strong diagonal lines that convey a sense of action.
Despite his return to more representational subjects, Malevich’s style in “Woman with Rake” still shows the influence of Cubism and other modernist movements. The woman’s body is comprised of abstract geometric forms in bright colors of orange, teal, pink and green. Her lack of facial features was common in Malevich’s works during this period, emphasizing her role as an archetypal peasant laborer rather than an individual.
The rake held firmly in the woman’s hands takes on symbolic meaning as well. On one level, it represents the manual labor that was expected of the proletariat class in early Soviet society. More broadly, it suggests the tension between the individual peasant worker and the collective – a relationship Malevich was exploring at the time. The woman tightly grips her tool as if clinging to her identity within the anonymous masses.
Historical Context Behind Its Creation
To comprehend Malevich’s shift to peasant subjects in the early 1930s, it is essential to examine the historical context in which he was working. In 1927, Malevich traveled to Warsaw and applied unsuccessfully for political asylum in Poland. He was forced to return to the Soviet Union, where the government heavily favored Socialist Realism in the arts.
Malevich’s Suprematist works, with their abstract geometries and philosophical bent, were deemed inappropriate for depicting communist ideology. But the artist continued to subtly blend modernist elements with traditional subjects as seen in “Woman with Rake.”
This painting can be interpreted as a representation of the changing role of the artist in rapidly evolving social conditions. The faceless woman epitomizes the individual succumbing to the anonymity of the collective. Her stoic expression and firm grip on the rake convey a sense of resilience and strength in the working class.
Why “Woman with Rake” Stands Out
While “Woman with Rake” was not as radically abstract as Malevich’s earlier Suprematist paintings, it still stands out within the context of his Second Peasant Cycle both stylistically and thematically.
The bold colors, simplified geometric forms, and blending of traditional and modern elements exemplify Malevich’s continued evolution as an avant-garde pioneer. The painting has an urgency accentuated by the diagonal composition combined with the woman’s dramatic pose.
Thematically, “Woman with Rake” goes beyond simply depicting peasant life to engage with deeper philosophical questions about individuality, labor, and the role of art in society. The work ultimately resists being classified under any one traditional movement or style, bearing the influence of Suprematism, Cubism, and Social Realism.
Its Place in Art History
Since its creation, “Woman with Rake” has rightfully earned recognition as a significant Russian avant-garde painting. The work is housed at the esteemed Tretyakov Gallery in Moscow alongside other masterpieces from Malevich’s long and innovative career.
Malevich’s uniquely philosophical approach inspired those involved in minimalism, conceptual art, and postmodern movements. Traces of his geometrical abstraction and focus on relationships between shapes and colors can be seen in the later works of Ad Reinhardt and other 20th century abstract painters.
Meanwhile, the theme of anonymous peasants as subjects has continued to fascinate artists. More recently, contemporary painter Marlene Dumas created a series based on “Woman with Rake,” replacing the peasant woman with an androgynous figure holding a broom. This demonstrates the enduring impact of Malevich’s composition and subject matter.
Interpreting Meaning in the Painting
Attempting to articulate the meaning behind modern abstract art can be challenging since it often aims to evoke subjective emotions rather than convey clear narratives. With “Woman with Rake,” viewers are compelled to draw their own connections between the different symbolic elements.
We can interpret the peasant woman depicted in an aggressive stance as representing the fortitude and resilience of the working class. Her indistinct facial features convey a sense of anonymity, yet she maintains a bold individual presence. The rake she tightly grasps can be seen to symbolize both agricultural labor and the struggle between individual will and obligation to community.
Malevich’s own writings provide further insight into his intentions. In his 1933 essay “On the Museum,” Malevich asserted his belief that, “A work of art lives not by its meaning but by its sense…art has its own meaning inseparable from formal values.” Here we see the artist’s view of art as an experience beyond concrete interpretation.
Ultimately, what makes “Woman with Rake” memorable is its boldness of form and visceral expression. The painting transcends thematic analysis to produce an arresting image open to the viewer’s personal interaction. Its places within 20th century abstraction merits ongoing examination and appreciation.
Why “Woman with Rake” Continues to Fascinate
Nearly a century after its creation, Malevich’s “Woman with Rake” remains a captivating and provocative work of modern art. Its unconventional composition, thought-provoking symbolism, and blend of styles offer much to visually analyze. But more profoundly, the painting represents a pivotal moment in the artist’s career that raises complex questions about art, identity, and society.
Malevich was both a rebel against artistic conventions and a product of the tumultuous political environment in which he worked. “Woman with Rake” embodies these tensions between individual creative vision and ideological constraints. We see a once radical pioneer of abstraction adopting more realist tendencies, yet still conveying a modernist ethos.
This rich interplay of context, biography, and artistic style is likely what continues to intrigue viewers, scholars, and fellow artists when they engage with “Woman with Rake.” Its invites us to reflect on the evolution of art and the human condition – a process as relevant today as when Malevich first painted the faceless peasant woman clutching her symbolic rake.
Comparison of “Woman with Rake” with Some Other Notable Works by Kazimir Malevich
|Woman with Rake||1930-1932||Second Peasant Cycle||Faceless woman holding rake, blend of modernism and agrarian subjects|
|Black Square||1915||Suprematism||Black square on white background, purely abstract and geometric|
|Red Square||1915||Suprematism||Red square tilted on white background, focus on color and form|
|White on White||1918||Suprematism||White square on white background, purity of abstraction|
|Dynamic Suprematism||1915||Suprematism||Overlapping geometrical shapes and limited color palette|
|Self-Portrait||1933||Socialist Realism||More conventional self-portrait, reaction to suppression of modernism|
|Reaper||1930||Second Peasant Cycle||Faceless peasant holding scythe, blend of avant-garde and agrarian|
|Cow and Violin||1913||Cubo-Futurism||Fragmented geometric forms depicting familiar objects|
- “Woman with Rake” shows Malevich returning to more representational subjects compared to his purely abstract Suprematist works like “Black Square” and “White on White.”
- It incorporates modernist elements like simplified geometric forms, whereas Socialist Realist works such as his “Self-Portrait” use more conventional representation.
- The peasant subject matter connects it to others from the Second Peasant Cycle like “Reaper,” unlike his earlier Cubo-Futurist works.
- “Woman with Rake” has bolder colors compared to the limited palette of his Suprematist paintings.
So we see Malevich’s style evolving across these periods, while retaining his unique avant-garde approach even when depicting traditional agrarian themes.
FAQs about Malevich’s “Woman with Rake”
Who painted “Woman with Rake”?
“Woman with Rake” was painted by the Russian avant-garde artist Kazimir Malevich between 1930-1932.
What style of art is “Woman with Rake”?
It is classified as a genre painting, depicting a peasant woman as the subject. Stylistically it shows influences of Cubism, Suprematism, and other modernist movements Malevich pioneered.
What is the medium used for “Woman with Rake”?
The painting is done in oil on canvas.
What is the size of “Woman with Rake”?
The canvas measures 100 x 75 cm, approximately 39 x 29.5 inches.
Where is “Woman with Rake” displayed?
It is part of the collection of the State Tretyakov Gallery in Moscow, Russia.
What does the woman hold in her hands?
She is holding a rake aggressively with both hands. The rake takes on symbolic meaning related to peasant labor.
Does the woman have facial features?
No, her face is blurred and indistinct. This was common in Malevich’s paintings during this period.
Why did Malevich paint peasant subjects like “Woman with Rake”?
In the 1930s, he shifted away from abstract art to peasant themes to conform more to Soviet ideology, while still incorporating some modernist elements.
How does “Woman with Rake” compare to Malevich’s Suprematist works?
It incorporates more representation but still uses geometric shapes and bold colors. His Suprematist works were more purely abstract.
Why does “Woman with Rake” remain influential today?
It seamlessly blended avant-garde and traditional elements. Its unique style and evocative symbolism continue to inspire and fascinate modern viewers.
Conclusion: An Enduring Masterwork
In exploring Kazimir Malevich’s “Woman with Rake,” we have uncovered layers of meaning related to Russian history, avant-garde art, modernist philosophy, and the artist’s own enigmatic outlook. The painting exemplifies Malevich’s ability to blend abstraction and representation to produce compelling images that transcend categorization.
While arguably not as daring as his Suprematist canvases, “Woman with Rake” nonetheless showcases Malevich’s originality. The work ultimately functions as a visually arresting commentary on peasant life, artistic identity, collectivism, and modernism itself.
Nearly a century after its creation, we continue to find relevance and inspiration in the provocative image of a peasant woman aggressively gripping her rake. As one of Malevich’s most renowned paintings, “Woman with Rake” retains its power to captivate, confound, and prompt profound reflections. It remains an enduring 20th century masterwork awaiting ongoing reinterpretation and appreciation.